Open Access

This journal is exclusively publishing gold open access since 2020. This means that the journal publishes peer-reviewed articles as first publications and guaranties access without significant technical and legal hurdles, making all content freely accessible and reusable.

The journal platform provides free access to the current issue and to all volumes published from 2020 onwards  (vol. 93).

From volume 94 on, the journal publishes a cumulative list of reviewers. This level of transparency follows the ideal of open science.


From Volume 93 onwards
All articles from vol. 93 on are published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. This license allows third parties to redistribute, modify and combine articles with other works, including for commercial purposes, as long as the author of the original is named. The CC BY 4.0 license thus significantly promotes the visibility and reach of publications and allows legally secure and free use, also in combination with other CC-licensed works.

Volumes 1-92
Volumes 1-92 from the years 1910-2018 were published at the Dietrich Reimer Verlag.


All authors retain copyright of their articles published by this journal. The authors, however, grant the journal the right of first publication under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license.

It is the responsibility of the authors to obtain all necessary copyright permissions for the use of third party materials in their publications.


Authors are permitted to deposit their articles in all versions of the publication process in an institutional or subject repository, as well as on their personal or institutional homepages. This includes preprints, author's accepted manuscripts as well as published articles (version of record).

After successful publication authors should provide a link from the deposited version to the version of record on the journal's website using the article's digital object identifier (DOI).

By self-archiving their publications, the authors support and promote open access as well as the outreach of their research.