Non-Formal Education in International Comparison: Patterns of Participation and Investment in Selected European Countries
Keywords:NFE, Participation, Investment Patterns, International Comparison, AES 2011, Vocational Education and Training
This investigation focuses on participation and related investment patterns in job related non-formal education (NFE) in selected European countries. Broadening previous research formats of NFE are distinguished by investment including financial and time investments by employers, employees and public authorities. By this, company-sponsored and individual-financed NFE are distinguished sharply and cases with shared investment between employers and employees (co-financed NFE) and between employers, employees and public funding (co-financed pooled NFE) are accounted for, additionally. For explaining participation in NFE supply and demand models are referred to. Hypotheses on cross-country differences for investment in NFE refer to the Varieties-of-Capitalism approach and countries are selected representing different varieties of capitalism (Norway, Sweden, Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Spain, France, UK). Analyses are based on data of the Adult Education Survey (AES) 2011/12.