Getting the Numbers Right on China’s Actual Overseas Investment: The Case of the Netherlands

Piter de Jong, Mark J. Greeven, Haico Ebbers


This study assesses the quality of Chinese outbound FDI data. In our case study of the Netherlands, we checked the data quality of the often-used Orbis/Amadeus database and its data source, the Dutch Chamber of Commerce (Kamer van Koophandel, KVK), which has one of the oldest and, arguably, one of the better databases within Europe. We analysed Chinese investments in the Netherlands and show that six adjustments are necessary to clean up the data. We also show that not making these adjustments can significantly impact the outcome of research. The cleaned-up data show that sampled Chinese firms are young, small, and private.

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